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Cutting Forces

Cutting Forces, Torque, and Horsepower for Turning Applications

These calculations are based upon theoretical values and are only intended for planning purposes. Actual results will vary. No responsibility from Kennametal is assumed.

Skip this step if you already know the Brinell hardness number(HB)
Metric
Inch

Skip this step if you already know the Brinell hardness number(HB)

Skip this step if you already know the Brinell hardness number(HB)
Characteristics of Workpiece Materials

Characteristics of Workpiece Materials

in mm
HB
Workpiece
Workpiece "p" Values (hp/in.3/min) for machining conditions: "p" Values (kW/cm3/min) for machining conditions:
Type of material Designation Calculate Hardness Finishing Roughing General Finishing Roughing General
Carbon steel AISI 1018 141 0.70 0.66 0.62 0.03322 0.03094 0.02867
Carbon steel AISI 1045 195 0.74 0.70 0.72 0.03458 0.03140 0.03276
Alloy steel AISI 4140 194 0.79 0.74 0.73 0.03777 0.03322 0.03367
Alloy steel AISI 4340 214 0.76 0.72 0.73 0.03822 0.03322 0.03367
Alloy steel AISI 4140 258 0.85 0.77 0.79 0.04004 0.03504 0.03595
Alloy steel AISI 4142 277 0.84 0.77 0.75 0.04050 0.03504 0.03595
Alloy steel AISI 4340 485 1.31 1.00 1.05 0.05961 0.04687 0.04869
Tool steel AISI H11 205 0.78 0.73 0.76 0.03822 0.03367 0.03504
Stainless steel AISI 316L 147 0.81 0.73 0.73 0.03822 0.03185 0.03322
Stainless steel AISI 410 243 0.81 0.71 0.74 0.03868 0.03367 0.03413
Stainless steel AISI 17-4 PH 294 0.99 0.70 0.72 0.04551 0.03367 0.03458
Gray cast iron SAE G3000 195 0.53 0.48 0.47 0.02730 0.02184 0.02184
Ductile cast iron ASTM 65-45-12 165 0.58 0.55 0.51 0.03003 0.02366 0.02366
Titanium alloy AMS Ti-6Al-4V 287 0.64 0.62 0.62 0.03094 0.02776 0.02867
Nickel alloy Inconel 718 277 1.20 1.01 1.02 1.05961 0.04596 0.04733
Aluminum alloys AMS 2024 139 0.31 0.29 0.30 0.01547 0.01320 0.01365
hp/ln.3/min. kW/cm3/min
Machining Conditions

Machining Conditions

in mm
in mm
ipr. mm/rev
sfm. m/min
Machine tool efficiency factor
Direct Belt Drive .9
Back Gear Drive .75
Geared Head Drive .7-.8
Oil - Hydraulic Drive .6-.9
Calculated Machining Conditions

Calculated Machining Conditions

rpm 1/min
ln.3/min. cm3/min
min
Cutting Forces Calculation

Cutting Forces Calculation

lb N
lb N
lb N
lb N
Horse Power Calculation

Horse Power Calculation

hp KW
hp KW
ft. lbs. N-m
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ISO Catalog Number

ANSI Catalog Number

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