Comminution: Crushing Big for a Smoother Mining Process

March 7, 2024

Underground mining of ore

Navigating the challenges of comminution during mining operations is critical for successful mineral processing. By maximizing material recovery, you can minimize environmental impact and optimize operational costs. In this blog, we will explore the importance of comminution, the machines used, and the components involved in this mining process.

What is Comminution?

Comminution involves reducing the size of solid materials preparing them for the next step in processing valuable minerals such as ore. Breaking down these materials into smaller particles enables smoother downstream processing. Crushing, grinding, and milling are common comminution methods, each tailored to suit specific materials and desired particle sizes.

Benefits of Comminution

Comminution is essential for liberating minerals from the gangue (unwanted materials in ore), making them more accessible for the separation processes. The process is designed to produce uniform particle sizes that are consistent, which enhances the overall efficiency of mineral extraction.

Challenges and Solutions for Comminution

Several challenges can impact operational efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability during the comminution process. These challenges can arise from the complex nature of breaking down ore along with the latest environmental regulations, and demand for process improvements. Here are some common challenges and solutions.

  • Ore Variability: Ores contain diverse types of mineral compositions which can make it challenging to efficiently handle different situations -- impacting the consistency of operations. By analyzing mineralogy and geostatistics, you can find innovative solutions to overcome ore variability.

  • Energy Consumption: Comminution is energy-intensive, but with energy-efficient technologies such as High-Pressure Grinding Rolls (HPGR), stirred mills, and improved circuit designs, you can reduce the amount of energy used without compromising the process.

  • Equipment Maintenance: The abrasive nature of ore can lead to substantial wear and tear on crushing and grinding equipment. If you invest in wear-resistant equipment and implement proactive maintenance programs, you can keep on top of your equipment and minimize downtime-- extending the lifespan of your parts.

Comminution Machine Types

There are diverse types of comminution machines used for breaking down materials. Here are some common machines used in comminution process:

  • Roll Crushers: A type of compression crusher often used in mining and aggregate industries. They consist of two large rolls, usually made of steel, with each roll rotating towards the other.  The material to be crushed is fed into the gap between the rolls and is crushed by the mechanical compression and forces exerted by the rolls. For information on preventing wear damage to your equipment including the teeth on your crusher, contact Kennametal experts to discuss KenCast solutions for your roll crushers.

  • High-Pressure Grinding Rollers (HPGR): This equipment is used in mining and mineral processing. HPGRs apply high pressure between two counter-rotating rollers to efficiently break down ore particles. This high-pressure force causes the formation of microcracks in the ore, leading to the removal of minerals.

High-Pressure Grinding Roll (HPGR) Components

When it comes to HPGR, several components contribute to their efficient operation. The wear resistance of the rolls prevents damage, optimizes material feed, and enhances overall comminution performance. 

These components include: 

  • Studs or pins that are strategically positioned on the surface of the HPGR rolls. They help to provide grip and traction which enables the creation of an autogenous layer.  They provide the necessary wear protection during crushing.

  • Edge segments are replaceable components that maintain the integrity of the rolls and help prevent damage to the cheek plates or side walls from high-pressure grinding forces. They minimize the direct contact between the rolls and the processed material.

  • Cheek segments cover the sides of the HPGR rolls and can withstand high-pressure forces. The cheek segments contain material from migrating over the edge of the roll, reducing wear and prolonging the operational life.


Comminution breaks large pieces of ore into smaller, more manageable pieces for the next step in the mining process. To achieve the best results when crushing or grinding ore, you should rely on a range of innovative solutions. 

For additional information on custom solutions for tungsten carbide components and KenCast wear-protection, contact our Kennametal experts. 

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